Polyethylene Terephthalate Microdevices
Our research group has developed a technique for fabricating microfluidic devices with complex multilayer architectures using a laser printer, a CO2 laser cutter, an office laminator, and common overhead transparencies as a printable substrate via a laser print/cut and laminate (PCL) methodology. The printer toner serves three functions; (1) it defines the microfluidic architecture, (2) acts as the bonding agent and, (3) provides printable, hydrophobic ‘valves’ for fluidic flow control. Using common graphics software, the protocol produces microfluidic devices with a design-to-device time of ~40 min. Devices of any shape can be generated for an array of multistep assays with colorimetric detection of molecular species ranging from small molecules to proteins. The simplicity of the protocol, availability of the equipment and substrate and cost-effective nature of the process make microfluidic devices available to those who might benefit most from expedited, microscale chemistry.
Figure 1. A microfluidic chip designed to dispense sample and mix reagents by rotating at varying speeds. This specific device is used to measure albumin concentration, white blood cell count, and hematocrit in whole blood.
Biological, Bioanalytical and Clinical Chemistry
Almost every aspect of the biochemical, biomedical and clinical sciences involves separation of species in complex matrices. Electrophoresis has been a benchmark technique for separation and characterization of biologically-active species. Instead of using conventional slab gel electrophoretic approaches, electrophoresis in micron-scale capillaries using applied fields as high as 30,000 volts, results in unprecedented resolution with unique selectivities and short analysis times. As a result of the microscalar nature of the capillary, only microliters of reagent are consumed by analysis with only a few nanoliters of samples injected for analysis. These characteristics, as well as the ability for on-line detection with laser-induced fluorescence sensitivities in the attomole (10-18 moles) range, made capillary electrophoresis (CE) appealing as a replacement for electrophoretic gels in the biomedical and clinical arenas. We have demonstrated the potential impact of CE on clinical diagnostics through the development of new CE-based assays for measuring kidney function, detecting multiple sclerosis and viral infections, screening for lymphoma, as well as for diagnosing drug abuse and alcoholism.
Figure 1. A – Schematic of capillary electrophoresis instrumentation. B – CE separation of human serum for the diagnosis of alcoholism.
While the diagnostic impact of standard CE technology is clear, an alternative platform for electrophoresis in microscalar structures has evolved in the form of microchip electrophoresis. The use of microfabricated glass devices containing etched capillary-like channels provides an electrophoretic platform akin to CE but with more flexibility. “Microchip electrophoresis” allows for analysis times to be decreased by an order of magnitude over times achievable by CE (as fast as 10-200 seconds) and two orders of magnitude faster than gel electrophoresis. This provides obvious value to clinical diagnostic laboratories in terms of more rapid turn around time and capability for high throughput screening. We have demonstrated this with the detection T-cell and B-cell lymphoma in a separation remarkably faster than with conventional means.
Figure 2. Demonstration of microchip electrophoresis as a technique for rapid diagnosis of T-Cell lymphoma. Sample T1 shows a negative sample, which is represented by the smear after 100 seconds of separation. T4 is a positive sample with a sharp peak.
With a program focused on the application of miniaturized electrophoretic technology to the clinical and forensic sciences, our current efforts involve broadening the scope of applications for microchip technology. This involves addressing issues associated with integrating functions other than ‘separation’ onto microchips. For example, we are focused on defining approaches for integrating DNA sample preparation into microchips. PCR amplification of DNA carried out using infrared-mediated thermocycling for rapid on-chip amplification and rapid DNA extraction using microchamber-bound solid phases are two examples of our integration efforts.
Figure 3. A – Demonstration of IR-mediated PCR in a polyimide microchip. Total time necessary for thermocycling was 220 seconds. B – Elution profile of DNA in mSPE chip.
The successful integration of DNA extraction and amplification will lead to the development of an “Integrated Diagnostic” or ID-chip, which we ultimately hope will improve laboratory medicine. Efforts are also underway to 1) define better detection systems using acouto-optic technology, 2) develop multichannel devices for high-throughput analysis using this optical technology, 3) explore proteomic aspects of disease using multi-dimensional microchips for protein separations, and 4) apply the relevant methods to forensic applications.
Simultaneous metering and dispensing of multiple reagents on passivelycontrolled microdevice solely by finger pressing. Xu K, Begley M, Landers JP. Lab on a Chip. 15: 867-876 (2015).
Integrated sample-in-answer-out microfluidic chip for Rapid HumanIdentification by STR analysis. Le Roux D, Root B, Reedy C, Hickey J, Scott O, Bienvenue J, Landers JP, Chassagne L, Mazancourt P. Lab on a Chip. 14:4415-4425 (2014).
DNA Analysis Using an Integrated Microchip for Multiplex PCRAmplification and Electrophoresis for Reference Samples. Le Roux D, Root B, Reedy C, Hickey J, Scott O, Bienvenue J, Landers JP, Chassagne L, Mazancourt P. Analytical Chemistry. 86:8192-8199 (2014).
Rapid, cost-effective DNA quantification via a visually-detectableaggregation of superparamagnetic silica-magnetite nanoparticles. Liu Q, Li J, Liu H, Tora I, Ide M, Lu J, Davis R, Green D, Landers JP. Nano Research. 7:755-764 (2014).
Dual-force aggregation of magnetic particles enhances label-freequantification of DNA at the sub-single cell level. Nelson D, Strachan B, Sloane H, Li J, Landers JP. Analytica Chimica Acta. 819:34-41 (2014).
Enhanced recovery of spermatozoa and comprehensive lysis of epithelialcells from sexual assault samples having a low cell counts or aged up to one year. Loundsbury J, Nambia S, Karlsson A, Cunniffe H, Norris J, Ferrance J, Landers JP. Forensic Science International: Genetics. 8:84-89 (2014).
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